Most of the captives were headed for sugar plantations where theyd be worked to exhaustion, many dying within five to ten years.On the journey home to Great Britain, in July 1700, a fierce storm sank the ship of the coast of Key West, Florida.

When Delany returned to the United States, however, the Civil War was in progress and prospects of freedom for African Americans were brighter.

President Abraham Lincoln appointed him as a major in the infantry in charge of recruiting all-African American Union units.

Frederick Douglass, the leading African American abolitionist, made him coeditor of his newspaper, the North Star, in 1847.

But Delany left in 1849 to study medicine at Harvard.

In 1822 the family moved to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, to find a better racial climate, and at the age of 19 Martin attended an African American school in Pittsburgh.

He married Kate Richards there in 1843; they had 11 children.

Martin Delany was born free in Charlestown, Virginia, on May 6, 1812.

His parents traced their ancestry to West African royalty.

A priceless artifact found in 1982 by a Navy-trained diver about 500 feet from the wreck site, who wrote about his find in an authentification letter, establishing provenance. In 1699 the ship sailed from London to West Africa with a cargo of pewter, beads and other English goods.

The ship then headed for Jamaica, where the captain sold the cargo of Africans.

At the age of 40 Delany began the practice of medicine, which he would continue on and off for the rest of his life. Despite his bitter opposition to the American Colonization Society and its colony, Liberia, Delany kept open the possibility of settling elsewhere in Africa.