In a 2015 paper in , her group reported isolating fragments of eight other proteins from fossils of dinosaurs and extinct birds, including hemoglobin in blood, the cytoskeletal protein actin, and histones that help package DNA. All amino acids except glycine (the simplest one) are optically active, having a stereocenter at their α-C atom.

This means that the amino acid can have two different configurations, “D” or “L” which are mirror images of each other.

Perhaps there was less C14 produced in the past, which would imply that even the relatively young C14 dates are too old. The C14/C12 ratio of living things and organic matter on the surface of the earth is about the same as in the atmosphere because carbon is constantly exchanged between living things and the atmosphere.

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Recent finds of Mary Schweitzer are also relevant for the dating of ancient bones.

Mary Schweitzer, a professor at North Carolina State University (North Carolina), has found soft tissue and protein in dinosaur bones.

Here is a discussion of this and related finds by Brian Thomas, a creation oriented author: verified and extended protein identification in a duck-bill dinosaur that Mary Schweitzer’s team had described in 2009.

These two new finds join dozens of others published over the last half-century, but evolutionary scientists still have a hard time accepting that these fossils retain original biochemicals.

Robert Service wrote in Science: The [soft tissue fossil] claims were met with howls of skepticism from biochemists and paleontologists who saw no way that fragile organic molecules could survive for tens of millions of years, and wondered whether her samples were contaminated with modern proteins.

Ancient protein specialist Michael Collins noted, “Proteins decay in an orderly fashion. This shows that there are many such finds of protein in fossil specimens, and also that experts in the field have trouble seeing how proteins could survive in bone for millions of years.Thus, measuring the ratio of D to L in a sample enables one to estimate how long ago the specimen died.This dating method is considered to be accurate for ages up to several hundred thousand years.It is calibrated by C14 dating, and the ages given by the two methods are in close agreement after such calibration.In millions of years, there would certainly be roughly equal numbers of D and L forms, so that the ratio of D to L would be one.If decay rates were faster in the past, then even the C14 dates could be too old.