In many cases, the same smith who made the nails occasionally turned his craft to the making of screws and thereby left us with personal traces of the maker.

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Lacking a cold hardened steel die with which to cut the thread, the craftsman had to cut it himself by hand.

This was usually done in laborious fashion with a file.

But the form used for the screw was a more or less round shallow depression into which the top of the shaft was hammered flat, producing a screw head.

The slot for the bladed screwdriver was cut with a hacksaw. We've got the column and the head but what about the ramp, also known as the worm or the threads?

And the overall shape of the entire screw is cylindrical rather than tapered as is the case in modern screws.

Because of the individual nuances and variables in the handwork process, no two handmade screws are identical.Starting with the top of the screw, the head, evidence of handwork is abundant.In most cases, the head is not perfectly round and is not centered perfectly on the shaft.C., used a shaft with a surrounding spiral in a tube to lift water, making use of one of the basic tools of physics, the ramp.In effect a screw is a ramp wrapped around a column.It has sharp, even threads, a cylindrical shape, blunt end and the slot is still off center.