Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia.In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, and upper Mesopotamia.

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A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik (Serbia), although the civilization is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age.

The Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC.

The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people.

Ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations.

The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.

The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC.

The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.

The archetypal Bronze Age divisions of the Near East have a well-established triadic clearness of expression.