Although several dehydrogenation pathways have been proposed, the hydrogenation process is less well understood.Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface-mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada, and is acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms.Abscission consists in the detachment of entire vegetative and reproductive organs due to cell separation processes occurring at the abscission zones (AZs) at specific positions of the plant body.

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The understanding of abscission is of great importance to control seed and fruit production and to improve breeding and harvesting practices.

Thus, advances made on model plants and crops are of major importance since they may provide potential candidate genes for further biotechnological applications.

Additionally, six genes were uniquely responsive to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW.

Evidence presented supports a role for sulphur- and nitrogen-containing chemical classes in the toxicity of extracts of OSPW.

Elucidating the underlying mechanism of AGO-mi RNA recognition is thus of great importance not only for the in-depth understanding of mi RNA function but also for inspiring new drugs targeting mi RNAs.

In this chapter we introduce a combined computational approach of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and protein-RNA docking to investigate AGO-mi RNA recognition.In my doctoral work I have elucidated both intracellular and extracellular aspects to the gamma-protocadherins (γ-Pcdhs) that regulate dendrite complexity.Loss of the 22 γ-Pcdhs, adhesion molecules that interact homophilically and are expressed combinatorially in neurons and astrocytes, leads to aberrantly high activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reduced dendrite complexity in cortical neurons.Here, we review the current knowledge of the physiological, genetic and genomic aspects related to abscission including the most recently disclosed putative regulators that appear to be implicated in the development and/or activation of the AZs.► Abscission is introduced as a production-limiting factor for crop species.► An anatomical description of the abscission zone (AZ) is provided and divergences in AZ location among species are discussed.Constructed from MD simulations, MSMs can elucidate the conformational dynamics of AGO at biologically relevant timescales.