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Since the main objective of this study was to explore married women's experiences, subjects who met the following inclusion criteria were selected: married women between 15 and 49 years of age, who did not desire pregnancy, and who used withdrawal for contraception. This process uses mainly inductive reasoning, by which codes, categories and themes emerge from raw data under careful examination and constant comparison.
Even those participants who had experienced unwanted pregnancy while using withdrawal, relied on withdrawal as their contraceptive method.
Disadvantages of OC included concerns about side effects.
We hypothesized that using withdrawal might be related to women's attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control and perhaps it could be explained in the context of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).
This theory suggests that people's intention to perform an specific behavior is predicted or influenced by three mentioned determinants where attitude refers to a personal factor of like or dislike, social norms refers to an individual's perception of social pressure, and perceived behavioral control refers to a person's perceived confidence in the ability to perform a behavior [ This was a qualitative study carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009.
Barriers related to use of OC included the need for medical advice, vaginal examination and daily use.
Husband-related factors included: the husband wanted to be the primary decision maker on the number of children and that he preferred withdrawal.Health providers should address misunderstandings that exist about OC and highlight the non-contraceptive health benefits of OC to balance the information provided for women.We suggest that not only women but also their spouses be advised in family planning programs.Four major themes were extracted from the interviews: advantages, disadvantages, barriers for OC use, and husband-related factors.Advantages of withdrawal use were identified as: easy to use, convenient, ease of access, natural.Thus it is likely that high rates of withdrawal use lead to unnecessary, even illegal and perhaps dangerous abortions; or to births that are mistimed or unwanted.