The origins of this mudra are not necessarily accepted by contemporary art historians.But in view of the fact that in Tibet the mudra turned downwards as in depictions of this subjugation of the maddened elephant is likewise called "granting protection" (skyabs sbyin), this interpretation is still highly possible.

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When Shaka Nyorai is shown with this mudra, it symbolizes the summoning of heaven to witness his enlightenment.

This mudra corresponds to Hōshō Nyorai Literally "touching the earth;" associated with Shaka Nyorai, who touches ground to "call the earth to witness" his victory over temptation during his battle with Mara (the Evil One); made using both hands, with right hand hanging over right knee, palm inward, with finger(s) touching earth, while left hand positioned on lap with palm up.

Each of the five has a specific mudra that corresponds to one of the five defining episodes in the life of the Historical Buddha (see charts below).

Each of the five is also associated with a compass direction, color, and other attributes.

Sometimes the left hand holds a begging bowl; one of the most common mudra among seated Buddha in Asia; not so common in Japan however. Akshobhya), who is found mostly in the mandala of Japan’s Esoteric Buddhist sects.

Yet, among Japan’s many Buddhist statues dating from the 8th century onward, Ashuku is seldom represented.

This mudra is often used in combination with the Varada Mudra (welcome mudra).

Associated with Amoghasiddhi (Jp: Fukujoju Nyorai; not frequently found in Japanese Buddhist sculpture).

But there is much variation and overlap among the mudra, and traditions in Japan differ from those in mainland Asia, so one should not depend exclusively on mudra for identification.