While the Native Americans of California did not document their culture in the same way western civilization did, we still have a great deal of knowledge from archaeological evidence as well as the earliest records of the Spanish missions.

Native communities in southern California of the Chumash Indians, practiced Matrilocal residence.

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The church was anxious to legitimize the marriages of natives through Catholic ceremonies.

Northern California Missions recorded the marriage of 2300 marriages of Native Americans previously joined by native custom with five thousand new unions and ten thousand neophyte widows and widower remarried.

There can be no prohibition of marriage except for an important social objective and by reasonable means.

No law within the broad areas of state interest may be unreasonably discriminatory or arbitrary....

Fitch formally requested the hand of Maria Antonia in 1827.

On April 15, 1829, the ceremony was in progress, but was stopped by order of Governor Jose Maria Echeandia.

At the time the youth of California were pressured to marry early.

Instead of marrying another Californian, Carrillo fell in love with American merchant seaman, Henry Delano Fitch.

In 2000, The Knight Initiative (Prop 22; CA DOMA) passes with 61.2% of the vote.

In 2001, same-sex couples (including Davina Kotulski and Molly Mc Kay) from Marriage Equality USA began asking for marriage licenses in Los Angeles and San Francisco.

Marriage between native Indian woman and Spanish men was encouraged by the California missions to increase the population and Spanish political power.