The second stage of drug use ranges from experimentation or occasional use to regular weekly use of substances.

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Some medications are available to specifically counteract the effects of drugs. "Parental monitoring." Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.

For example, naltrexone is used to counteract the effects of opioid intoxication. "Experience, Research Show Testing Doesn't Work." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

In addition to those more behavioral symptoms, loved ones can look for the physical symptoms of drug intoxication and withdrawal. "Warning Signs of Teenage Drug Abuse." Parenting Adolescents About, Inc.

Given the complexity of those symptoms and how much they depend upon the specific drug being abused, loves ones are advised to have their family member evaluated medically and/or psychiatrically if substance abuse is suspected for any reason.

Some of the most common symptoms of drug abuse in teenagers include lying, making excuses, breaking curfew, staying in their room, becoming verbally or physically abusive toward others, having items in their possession that are connected to drug use (paraphernalia), the smell of drugs (for example, solvent smell of inhalants, marijuana smell) on them, mood swings, sleepless nights, stealing, and changes in friends. "Ethnic Identification and Cultural Ties May Help Prevent Drug Use." National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Examples of paraphernalia include matches, rolling papers, and pipes for drugs that are smoked, multiple pill bottles for substances that are in pill form, mirrors for drugs that are snorted, and needles, syringes, and items that can be used as tourniquets for drugs that are injected. "Annual Survey Finds Increasing Teen Use of Ecstasy Steroids." National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Supporting the substance-abuse sufferer medically is the approach to managing most drug intoxications, since many substances of abuse can affect bodily functions (for example, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate). "Exploring the Why's of Adolescent Drug Abuse." National Institute on Drug Abuse.

In addition to close medical monitoring, doctors usually have the individual assessed psychiatrically, since drugs are associated with everything from impaired judgment to severe aggression, assaultive behavior, and even suicidal and homicidal behaviors.

Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Medical Editor: Barbara K. population age 12 or older, had used prescription medications for nonmedical purposes in the month prior to the survey. "Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide." Feb.