Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. I have only been able to devote a few days to the latter branch of the subject, — and although the unfortunate condition of our4fapr in Ireland has occupied much of my time and thoughts for some years, I am sensible that it w^ld require «,„re Lurate knowledge, stronger p^ers of rea- soning, and more talents for writing also, than I can claim, to treat such a subject, in so short a iimcy in a manner to be really worthy of the atten- tion of the public. It may be useful, therefore, to point out the in- surmountable difficulties which at present stand in the way of an immediate alteration of that kind, and the impossibility of augmenting the size of farms upon any large or general scale, until the ex- isting race of farmers and labourers shall have been first taught, that there exists a far^ better system of cultivation than that already in use ; and until ^something worthy of being called agricultural ca- pital is created, by the introduction of a more re- munerating course of tillage. 1833 s, d, 52 11 541,742 1,059,588 844,201 1834 46 2 462,229 1,110,464 779,504 1835 39 4 340,535 1,124,344 661,776 Yet, strange to say, this fall in price (from 52^. Nevertheless, some well-informed mem- bers f seem to have adopted the idea very strongly, and directly imply in the form of their question, not only that the fall in the price of wheat in the Buck- * Agricul. The Fanning Society, which was set on foot about the time of the Union, met with no better success in the agricultural part of its labours.Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. The following pages, therefore, are made public solely in the hop S[jp£^ exciting useful, practical dis- •cussion among those whose ability to do justice to the question is far greater than mine. Int Toductioii.^Popular Eironi as to the Effect of the Import of Irish Grain on English Prices ; — as to the Fertility of the Soil^ and the Profits derivable by the Farmer from Low Wages Page 1 11. But, before entering upon the most practicable method of improving the present state of things in Ireland, let us first consider what is the real amount of the influence which her exports at pre- sent exert upon the price of grain in England. notwithstanding the striking diminution of import which had occurred. to 89*.) was erroneously attributed by most of the farmer- witnesses in 1836, to the introduction of wheat from Ireland, — ^though this import had itself actually fallen with the price, from 800,000 quar- ters to 600,000 quarters. The gentlemen who conducted it were apparently im- bued with the nsitional prejudice, which seems to consider tillage as a sort of necessary evil, which only admits of palliatives ; and they directed all their real Energy to the improvement of the stock of the graziers, in which they had much success.

Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. .-.;;)ATr.)iv 5 :• i.-, J, LONDON : PRINTED BT SAHUEL BBNTLBT^ Dorset Street, Fleet Street. Some explanation is required^ if not some apology^ for venturing to place these few pages before the public in their present shape. Groimds of Apprehension as to the Correct Working of the Poor Law. It is desirable therefore, by, a sketch of the sti^te of farming as it exists in Ireland, to show that tb that ilhe progressive advance wrhtch has taken place in the: amonnt of exports from Ireland^ not having flowed from an improvement in the syistem of till- age in that country, has not been attended with any corresponding amelioration of the fortunes or condition of the owners or occupiers of the soil. in the pound poor-rate, and paid a commutation ^^ for tithe, had to compete with land of equal quality, which that the growth of grain should not have been more effectually checked. inheritance, than by husbandry of their old lands to encrease their re- venues." But even in those days, when, he says,^ famines were frequent in Ireland, he adds,f " in " times of peace, the Irish transport good quantity '^ of corne, yet they may not transport it without " licence, lest on any sudden rebellion, the king's '* forces and his good subjects should want, corne." He tells his readers, J that *' the plenty of grasse '' makes the Irish have infinite multitudes of cattle," which were indeed their only property ; but he speaks of the stock in the most contemptuous terms, with reference both to their size and condition, and says that '' onely the men and the greyhounds are of '' great stature." He seems struck with the extreme zeal and determination evinced by the natives in de* fence of. He says,* " A few considerable landlords, many years ago, made the experiment of fixing, at great expense, colonies of Palatines on their estates; some of them I viewed, and made many inquiries ; the scheme did not appear to me to an- swer.

We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. I was much surprised to find in the evidence taken before the Agricultural Committee in 1836, the large amount of misapprehension which seemed to exist in England on the state of Irish Agri* culture ; and I shortly after threw together some remarks on the subject, with an intention of pub- lishing them, though I afterwards abandoned that idea. It seems not unreasonable to deduce from this state of existing circumstances^ that if the present miser- able system of culture could be generally exchanged for that improved method of cultivation of which scattered examples are to be discovered in many parts of Ireland,* a change of results must follow a change of causes : — and instead of unprofitable tillage, entailing poverty on the bulk of the popu- laticm, and therefore a limited home consumption of grain, and considerable export ; we might wit- ness the happy alternative of profitable husbandry enriching the agriculturist, and diminishing the ex- ports of gprain by giving that stimulus to home consumption, which would follow an improvement in the means and habits of the people. * It would be very wrong to undervalue the improvements in husbandry which have been introduced ; it is only contended here, that they have not been sufficient of themselves to supply the increasing demand for home consumption within the coun- try itself — which is too often kept out of sight. d, 18 5 1,353,533 642,693 1,762,519 1834 20 11 1,277,598 772,994 1,747,910 1835 22 1,462,580 566,007 1,822,766 But none of the witnesses examined before the com- mittee in 1836 could find fault with the last quo- tation of the price of oats, — and even the most anti- Irish among them declared* that it was sufficiently remunerating, — though more had been introduced from Ireland in 1835 than before. such miserable stock, which, he says, they will fight for as for their altars. They had houses built for them, plots of land assigned to each, at a rent of favour, assisted **in stock, and all of them with leases for lives from the head landlord.

Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. — Sketch of the Agricultural Condition of the Extreme West. Of the Employment of Agricultural Capital on Land in Ire- land 114 V. — Con- ventional Settlement which will probably be created. — That stimulus can only be applied through the Agency of the Guardians. There is a vague impression in the minds of some people that the agriculture of Ireland must have been vastly improved already ; for they sup- pose that the increase in her exports must be main^ ly attributed to that cause. poor tradesmen reduced to '^ beggary and banishment." To render the paral- lel with the present time more exact, he attributes the discouragement of tillage, in another place,| to '^ the abominable race of graziers, who, upon expira- ** tion of the farmers' leases, were ready to engross " great quantities of land, and the gentlemen having *' been often, ill paid, and their land u)orn out of ^ heart, were too easily tempted. a piece for stock and capital ; but these ex- pensive projects fell still-born from their parents.

We also ask that you: Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. — Equal Pressure of th^ Rate on Landlords and Tenants desirable 124 VI. There is a general idea also that any further improvements in tillage yn\l tend to augment the export €onsiderably to reduce the price of gram in E^^gland^ and injure the in^ter- est^ of the British farmers ; there is consequently much jfe^lousy shown by the latter upon that scope. ** Supposing this land, which you say was ** subject to I2s. 1617,) says, that *' Gentlemen laboured more "to get new possessions for . Thus, a vast tract '^ of land, where twenty or thirty farmers lived, to- " gether with their cottagers and labourers^ in their *' several cabins, became all desolate and easily — ■ I * A Short View, p. Arthur Young, whose observations are written in the very best spirit, shows the impolicy of such a scheme.

Where there is little or no timber on an estate, (as in Ireland ^nd Scotland,) it will seldom suit landlords to undertake the repair of buildingsy whatever English gentlemen may suppose : but a proper superintendence they are bound to organize. Blacker fodnd, not only that farms were small, but that however limited in size, the farmer's capital was still smaller in proportion ; or in other words,, that however small the farm might be with re-» ference to extent, it was usually too large with re- ference to capital.

His object, therefore, is to show each individual tenant how he can enter little by little upon an entirely new course of cropping ; how he may find additional employment and profit within the narrow limits of his farm, and thereby create additional capital.

Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. H T *' There is some soul of goodness in things evil, Would men observingly distil it out." K. V proposed for Ireland, — and how many others, emi- nent for their attachment to her interests, who despair of making it work practically,— I am con- scious that I ought to feel the greatest distrust in the sanguine hopes which I have ventured to form of its ultimate success. 5 to show the extent of error which exists on this subject^ and the many fallacies which have been encouraged by ignorance^ by jealousy, or some- times, as it would seem, for other extraneous pur- poses: for, supposing that Irish grain zvas raised at a comparatively larger profit, it may be shown that the quantity exported, after all, is insufficient to cause the depression which is complained of by the English farmer; and, still further, it appears that the low price of wheat which occurred lately did actually cause the same distress to the tillage farmer in the one country as in the other, and that the diminished price compelled the Irish to dimi- nish the growth and export of that particular de- scription of grain, even before their brethren in England had reduced their supply. This is made apparent by extracting fi-om the IRISH GBAIN ON ENGLISH PRICES. 46 MEANS OF IMPROVING tained — that they are now fattened in three yeiars and a half instead of five years: but thfe system of husbandry was not altered by the labours of the Fanning Society, and it paid very little attention to that branch of a farmer's business.

You can search through the full text of this book on the web at | //books .google .com/I •^ni ^' *■ «.a| l^« THE PRESENT POVERTY OF IRELAND CONVERTIBLE INTO THE MEANS OF HER IMPROVEMENT, UNDER A WELL-ADMINISTERED POOR LAW WITH A PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE STATE OF AGRICULTURE IN IRELAND. The general object of these pages is to show, that very small profits have hitherto been derived from the existing system of tillage in Ireland, which seems to have been pursued only for a mere sub- sistence ; to explain that capital has been invested in cattle rather than in labour, and the evil conse* quences of this practice ; and, lastly, to indicate, if possible, the means by which the pressure of a Poor Rate, (if that pressure should be applied, as it ought to be, precisely on the principle of the English law,) may be made to introduce a more wholesome state of things. First, then, if we turn to the Report of the Agri-* cultural Committee which sat in 1836,* we find that the average annual consumption of foreign wheat in England, in the years 1829 — 30, and — 31, was 1,519245 quarters per annum, and yet the absence of almost the whole of that im- portation in 1835, during which the ports were nearly closed to foreign wheat, did not prevent the price of wheat falling 27^. The following are the quantities of foreign and Irish wheat imported into England in the years 18 respectively : — • Commons', 1856, App*. EFFECT OF THE IMPORT OF Foreign, Quarters r Irish, Quarters Total, Quarters 1831 1,491,631 557,520 2,049,141 1835 28,413 661,776 690,189 The average price in 1831 was 66^. 7 Report of the last Agriculttiral Committee, the average price of wheat in England during these three years^ as well as the annual amount oi im-» ports from Ireland. The most use- ful boon which it conferred on tillage was the in- troduction of the Scotch plough and cart into Ire- land.

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When that is once effect- ed, each field will yield its share of profit to the owner ; and whether the farm be large or small, if it is to be tilled at all, this system (except upon very stiff clays) should equally be adopted.